Considerations for the initial designs will endeavour to meet a set of eco-targets based on Good Practice and current international standards. In doing so, LGC will be able to offer their potential clients an authentic and ecologically sound holiday experience.
Use of renewable energy sources at a residential level will be achievable at the earliest stages of development and by utilising modern methods of construction LGC will also ensure accommodation units will be designed and built to comply with the eco-standards set out in LGC’s development strategy whilst also providing cost savings on construction time and labour costs.
The key principles of LGC’s ‘Whole Island Strategy’ are set out within this document and are designed to provide a sustainable approach to all aspects of the development strategy and accord with the goals set out by the United Nations for ‘small island developing states’
LGC intend to measure their approach to sustainability with the use of key indicators as recommended by the World Tourist Organisation this can provide valuable information in directing the strategy and recognising the need where necessary to evolve or adapt the strategy set out by LGC and its partners.
Corporate and social responsibility is another key driver in LGC’s sustainable development strategy and in undertaking such responsibilities LGC have recognised the success that this policy can bring.
The initial phases of the overall plan will be developed within the framework of the ‘Whole Island Strategy’ and will be a balanced, co-ordinated, practical and efficient approach to sustainable development on the island of Mwali. This approach can only serve to benefit the investment potential of Mwali and in turn its people.
Sustainable Development of Mwali
Corporate Responsibility and Sustainability Charter for Mwali.
LGC and its partners are keen to meet their corporate and social responsibilities by taking a strategic approach to sustainable development. LGC and its partners seek to preserve essential ecological processes, protect human heritage and biodiversity. By achieving these goals LGC can create and maintain sustainable tourism for the international upscale market and ensure long term viability of the tourism experience and tourism enterprises on Mwali.
LGC and its partners are keen proponents of corporate and social responsibility in doing so LGC has enjoyed successful ventures by promoting excellent relations with employees and local communities and recognising the benefits achievable by doing so. LGC also recognises that to maintain a destinations appeal and competitive advantage LGC need to adopt an effective approach to sustainability in all its aspects.
UNWTO's Tourism 2020 Vision forecasts that international arrivals are expected to reach nearly 1.6 billion by the year 2020. Of these worldwide arrivals in 2020, 1.2 billion will be intraregional and 378 million will be long-haul travellers. As a consequence of this research the UNWTO has instigated the use of these indicators as part of its approach to ensuring developers adopt a sustainable tourism strategy.
The central indicators include but are not limited to:
Tourism Contribution to local economy.
Sustainable considerations for Energy consumption on Mwali
The majority of islands have common problems associated with energy and its production and distribution. Mwali is no exception and its energy issues can be characterised by;
Major reliance on imported fuels
Small scale generation of electricity
High distribution costs
Under use of the island’s potential renewable energy resources
Mwali is almost totally dependent on imported fossil fuel for its commercial energy. Motor vehicles, marine vessels and generator fuels are imported. In addition, a combination of fossil fuel and fuel wood is used for domestic energy uses. Almost all electricity depends on diesel fuels.
Achieving reductions in fossil fuels
To ensure a reduction in the use of Mwali reliance on fossil fuels and therefore the level of carbon emissions and embodied energy in the transportation of such fuels etc LGC’s development strategy is to not only improve the level of energy efficiency but also to utilise locally renewable energy sources. This would not only significantly contribute to the islands economic development but also provide a clean and sustainable source of energy for the population and its tourists and visitors.
LGC plan to promote, on the one hand, energy efficiency and energy saving actions, whilst on the other hand, would seek to develop, where appropriate, renewable energy sources as a means of power.
Mwali has a good wind regime. A number of locations have been found to have good potential for electricity generation. Average yearly wind speeds of about 8m/s above ground level would offer a significant renewable resource to Mwali and its energy needs.
The production of wind farms at suitable locations could help to remove totally the need for imported fossil fuels to Mwali. Indeed, such renewable energy measures could assist in the creation of a totally self-supporting electricity supplier on Mwali and indeed a further long-term investment opportunity.
Solar and Photovoltaic Systems
Mwali has very favourable conditions for utilising a variation of solar and PV systems on a commercial or residential scale. The tropical sun shines evenly all year round and the technology is available from regional sources. The following systems are all attractive options to provide heat, ventilation. Light and other energy requirements to individual dwellings or commercial properties. This, in conjunction with other renewable energies would provide a sustainable, consistent and cost beneficial approach to energy resourcing on Mwali.
Solar PV Systems are a renewable energy technology which transforms the energy from the sun into electricity using photovoltaic cells. A solar PV system is a sustainable, low maintenance option for contributing to greener environment, as these systems do not cause any pollution or emissions and have numerous advantages.
Design can be for a variety of applications and operational requirements, and can, therefore be adaptable to different situations and locations. Once properly installed, a PV system will require only annual servicing maintenance, in addition, their reliability and energy independence will provide a significant lifespan of electricity generation. They provide sustainable electricity generation from a natural infinite source and their operation is noise and pollution free, being modular, they are often easy to expand.
A domestic solar PV system will reduce energy bills by using the free electricity that it generates before drawing from a grid tied connection with excess or unused electricity fed back into the grid. With a different component design a PV system can be entirely ‘off grid’ storing unused generated electricity in a battery storage system.
Solar PV systems designs extend from small ‘roof mount’ domestic installations to ‘ground mount’ solar farms producing significant daytime generation. Solar PV is still one of the fastest growing renewable energy technologies and is projected to play a major role in global electricity production in the future. Global solar PV installations will reach a new high of 114.5 gigawatts in 2019, up 17.5% on 2018.
Solar PV is quickly becoming the cheapest source of electricity, outcompeting conventional power generation plants in several parts of the world. But it will only reach its full potential in a real decentralised energy system that enables integration of major shares of variable sources of electricity and recognises appropriately the benefits of small scale, clean and local solar installations. These solar PV rooftop systems can compete on retail price with grid power at most places in the world; still only few countries, like Australia, have been truly tapping this attractive solar solution. Small solar PV systems are the backbone of a digitalised, decarbonised, distributed and democratised energy system which empowers consumers and territories (e.g. households, hospitals, public buildings, hotels, etc.) with cleaner, cheaper and local electricity. They have the potential to support the competitiveness of local businesses, revive rural areas and foster sector-coupling synergies at all levels of society. Last, but not least, small scale solar provides three times more jobs than ground mounted installations.
Solar PV is one of the cheapest sources of electricity and this is especially true for emerging solar markets, many of which are located in the sunniest regions on this planet. Solar PV is also one of the most equitably distributed energy resources in the world. Contrary to fossil fuels, all countries in the world have access to sunlight regardless of population, land or economic wealth. Solar PV therefore is a key enabler to contribute to the energy transition of emerging markets and regions. This is not a scoop, as many emerging markets are already on their way to outpace developed solar PV markets such as Europe and the US. Solar PV additions in emerging markets could reach 207 GW of total installed capacity within 5 years - with the highest potential in South Asia (112 GW) and in the Middle East and Africa (51 GW).
Most areas in Africa average more than 2,500 hours of sunshine each year, and average solar-radiation levels range between 4.5 and 6.5kWh/m2 in a day. The 24hr average solar radiation is about 220 W/m2 for Africa, compared to about 150 W/m2 for the USA and around 100 W/m2 for Europe. This makes Africa’s local resource one of the highest in the world.
About 80% of people in the world have access to electricity. This figure has increased in the last decade, mainly due to increasing urbanisation. Despite more people having access to electricity, we use very different amounts of it. Using data from the World Energy Council we can compare how much electricity the average electrified household uses in different countries.
Household Electricity Consumption (kwh/year)
South Africa 4,389
World Average 3,471
The global average electricity consumption for households with electricity is roughly 3,500 kWh There are numerous things that drive these differences, including wealth, physical house size, appliance standards, electricity prices and access to alternative cooking, heating and cooling fuels. Surprisingly the global average is as high as 3,500 kWh/year, given that the figures for India and China are so low. Two things explain this, household size and electrification rates. In China about 99% of people have electricity and average household size is around 3. In India these are 66% and 5 respectively and in Nigeria 50% and 5. Average household size in most wealthy countries is closer to 2.5 people. As a result, the distribution of electrified households is more skewed towards wealthy countries than population in general.
In Comoros, 1 megawatt of Solar PV would provide approximately 1,710 kWh/year to 1,000 homes.
Biofuel or Agro-fuel (Bargass)
These are fuels derived from Biomass or Bio-waste. Generally, the use of bio-fuel helps reduce ‘greenhouse gases’ once converted it can be used for transportation fuel or heating. This biofuel can be sourced from sugar or starch-based crops which are then fermented or from oil producing plants such as Jatropha or Algae which once again be used to fuel diesel vehicles.
Mwali has significant source of these crops and the potential for LGC to facilitate an increase in crop production could provide an attractive and beneficial source of biofuel, not to mention the economic advantages to Mwali and its stakeholders.
Another potential renewable energy source identified by LGC for the benefit of the island and its visitors that can be harnessed from the natural environment of Mwali is the sea. Although Mwali has a designated Marine Park, this predominantly covers the southern coast of Mwali.
The northern side of Mwali offers great potential in harnessing and developing tidal energy production. Harnessing this energy can be achieved in numerous ways most commonly by use of tidal barrage systems, such as cost competitive cross flow vertical axis turbines which can turn tidal currents into electrical currents. This source can be easily integrated into other energy systems. The additional advantage of such harnessing systems is that it can assist in providing coastal protection, a measure that
LGC recognises that Mwali is now threatened by a combination of small land size, capacity and resource constraints. Coastal areas have been degraded by increased land based and unsustainable exploitation of living and non-living resources. Deforestation, destructive agricultural and land use patterns and ineffective waste management.
LGC’s Sustainable approach
LGC is keen to ensure within their ‘Whole Island Strategy’ that a sustainable and restorative approach is considered and as such LGC has initiated a set of preliminary objectives to maintain Mwali biodiversity.
Protecting and strengthening the representative ecosystem biodiversity within the zoned areas.
Developing biodiversity protection strategies with a range of activities including management techniques, environmental education and awareness and community support.
Developing conservation and sustainable use programs based on revenue generation for protected areas.
Interactions with the local community.
Developing a sustainable development strategy using a ‘Whole Island Strategy’
To identify where relevant and undertake impact assessments and mitigation strategies
LGC recognises that the impact of increased tourism development can have an adverse effect on the environment of Mwali and therefore by initiating a clearly defined ‘Whole Island Strategy’ LGC can endeavour to ensure that this increase is undertaken in such a way and at such a rate that it has a minimum detrimental impact to Mwali’s biodiversity.
The outcome of such a strategy by LGC will assist in restoring and sustaining not only the biodiversity of Mwali but also prevent further potential degradation of the eco-system. This strategy accords with the objectives and targets agreed within The United Nations Environment Program relevant to small islands in development.
In doing so, LGC can maintain the fundamental feature of the investment opportunity presented in this document and ensure the authenticity and exclusivity of Mwali as an eco- tourist destination.
Overall the investment potential and opportunity of Mwali is inextricably linked with the need to provide for a sustainable strategy of development on the island. The sustainable approach has been developed through the LGC’s ‘Whole Island Strategy’ and not only benefits the community of Mwali but also provides for a means to ensure long term growth potential and the stability of any investment in Mwali tourism and associated activities.
LGC has, through nurturing long term committed relationships with the Government and people of the Union of Comoros, managed to secure, after prolonged and complex negotiation, an agreement that provides for LGC’s long term, control of the development strategy on Mwali (Mwali). This will ensure a consistent and sustainable approach to the design and construction of tourist and leisure facilities and its associated infrastructure.